The rotating migration system allowed Europeans to rake in huge profits. Companies could pay migrant workers much less than what permanent urbanites required to support their families, since the difference was covered by unpaid subsistence activities in the reserves. This system continues to this day: for instance, unskilled workers in South Africa come from as far as Malawi and return home as infrequently as once a year.
When HIV hit the continent in the early 1980s it spread rapidly through these migration networks. It was an epidemic waiting to happen. In South Africa, HIV prevalence is nearly three times higher among migrant workers than among non-migrants. Migration increases high-risk sexual behaviour among men who are away for long periods of time, and this increases HIV prevalence among their female partners tenfold.
These high prevalence rates have to do with the conditions that characterize migrant destinations, like mines and plantations. These are zones of hyper-exploitation: high injury rates, depression and loneliness among workers mixed with the steady supply of alcohol and prostitutes that managers dish out to suppress dissent encourages unsafe sex. Poor healthcare services in these zones means that even easily curable STIs go untreated, which makes HIV transmission up to 400 percent more likely. This is why the highest prevalence rates in the world are found at migrant workplaces, sometimes reaching as high as 70 percent.
If people know about these risks, then why migrate in the first place? The short answer is that they usually have no choice. Remittances sent home by migrants are critical to household survival, and many households have no other source of income; they cannot afford to forfeit such staple earnings in favour of geographical solidarity. When families are forcibly strung across the subcontinent, “abstinence” and “fidelity” – the values promoted by HIV prevention campaigns – become impossible ideals for both men and women. —Neoliberal plague: AIDS and global capitalism (via rs620)
Zuhair Murad - Fall Winter 2013 2014
This is how to run a stick of Chapstick
down the black boxes on your scantron
so the grading machine skips the wrong
answers. This is how to honor roll. Hell,
this is how to National Honor Society.
This is being voted “Most Likely to Marry
for Money” or “Talks the Most, Says the
Least” for senior superlatives. This is
stepping around the kids having panic
attacks in the hallway. This is being the
kid having a panic attack in the hallway.
This is making the A with purple moons
stamped under both eyes. We had to try.
This is telling the ACT supervisor you have
ADHD to get extra time. Today, the average
high school student has the same anxiety
levels as the average 1950’s psychiatric
patient. We know the Pythagorean theorem
by heart, but short-circuit when asked
“How are you?” We don’t know. We don’t
know. That wasn’t on the study guide.
We usually know the answer, but rarely
I really like the idea of Sirius and Regulus being partly Chinese since JKR never specified the ethnicities of all the Black family members and if you’re going to make excuses about it then I don’t wanna hear.
Photo by:Carla Ten Eyck
THE BEST COOKIE RECIPES :D
can I eat all of them at once please
reblogging for future reference omfg
Follow for more food porn!
Van Gogh’s Almond Blossoms 1890 | Hannibal 2x06
repeat after me:
1. our immigrant families are not just ‘homophobic’ they are also ‘colonized.’
2. our parents have histories, genders, and sexualities, too.
3. they are just as broken as we are (but we have the words — i mean the english — to say it)
4. the diaspora responds to racism with heteronormativity
5. trauma seeps through generations